Ubuntu安装Docker

Docker是基于 Linux Container 技术的轻量级虚拟化环境。

Docker 可以让开发者打包他们创建的应用以及相应的依赖包到一个可移植、轻量级的容器中。 Docker 可大大简化在容器中管理应用程序的过程。容器使用沙盒机制,运行在其中的应用与主系统相互分离,类似与虚拟机。 但容器比虚拟机有更棒的可移植性、占用计算机资源更小。

不过,现在基本被k8s打得找不到北了。Docker比较轻量,平时在本地基于docker部署一些服务做测试还是比较方便的。

  • 从 Docker 下载下来的叫镜像( images )
  • 使用docker run 运行起来的镜像( images )叫容器( containers )

在线安装脚本

sudo apt-get update
sudo curl -fsSL https://get.docker.com -o get-docker.sh | sh

启动 Docker

sudo systemctl daemon-reload
sudo systemctl enable docker # 加入开机启动项
sudo systemctl start docker # 启动 Docker

检查docker信息

安装后使用下面的命令查看版本,验证是否成功

docker info
Client:
 Context:    default
 Debug Mode: false
 Plugins:
  app: Docker App (Docker Inc., v0.9.1-beta3)
  buildx: Docker Buildx (Docker Inc., v0.9.1-docker)
  compose: Docker Compose (Docker Inc., v2.12.2)
  scan: Docker Scan (Docker Inc., v0.21.0)

下载一个镜像

docker pull nginx

查看本地镜像

docker images

运行一个容器

docker run -d nginx 
# -d(后台)

指定端口运行

docker run -d -p 80:80 nginx 
# -p(映射端口 主机端口:容器端口)

查看运行的容器

docker ps -a
-a(显示所有容器,包括停止的容器)

拷贝文件

docker cp <src-path> <container>:<dest-path> 

卸载Docker

sudo apt-get purge docker-ce docker-ce-cli containerd.io
sudo rm -rf /var/lib/docker
sudo rm -rf /var/lib/containerd

Docker 命令

docker help

Usage:  docker [OPTIONS] COMMAND

A self-sufficient runtime for containers

Options:
      --config string      Location of client config files (default "/Users/bowen.wang/.docker")
  -c, --context string     Name of the context to use to connect to the daemon (overrides DOCKER_HOST env var and
                           default context set with "docker context use")
  -D, --debug              Enable debug mode
  -H, --host list          Daemon socket(s) to connect to
  -l, --log-level string   Set the logging level ("debug"|"info"|"warn"|"error"|"fatal") (default "info")
      --tls                Use TLS; implied by --tlsverify
      --tlscacert string   Trust certs signed only by this CA (default "/Users/bowen.wang/.docker/ca.pem")
      --tlscert string     Path to TLS certificate file (default "/Users/bowen.wang/.docker/cert.pem")
      --tlskey string      Path to TLS key file (default "/Users/bowen.wang/.docker/key.pem")
      --tlsverify          Use TLS and verify the remote
  -v, --version            Print version information and quit

Management Commands:
  builder     Manage builds
  config      Manage Docker configs
  container   Manage containers
  context     Manage contexts
  image       Manage images
  manifest    Manage Docker image manifests and manifest lists
  network     Manage networks
  node        Manage Swarm nodes
  plugin      Manage plugins
  secret      Manage Docker secrets
  service     Manage services
  stack       Manage Docker stacks
  swarm       Manage Swarm
  system      Manage Docker
  trust       Manage trust on Docker images
  volume      Manage volumes

Commands:
  attach      Attach local standard input, output, and error streams to a running container
  build       Build an image from a Dockerfile
  commit      Create a new image from a container's changes
  cp          Copy files/folders between a container and the local filesystem
  create      Create a new container
  diff        Inspect changes to files or directories on a container's filesystem
  events      Get real time events from the server
  exec        Run a command in a running container
  export      Export a container's filesystem as a tar archive
  history     Show the history of an image
  images      List images
  import      Import the contents from a tarball to create a filesystem image
  info        Display system-wide information
  inspect     Return low-level information on Docker objects
  kill        Kill one or more running containers
  load        Load an image from a tar archive or STDIN
  login       Log in to a Docker registry
  logout      Log out from a Docker registry
  logs        Fetch the logs of a container
  pause       Pause all processes within one or more containers
  port        List port mappings or a specific mapping for the container
  ps          List containers
  pull        Pull an image or a repository from a registry
  push        Push an image or a repository to a registry
  rename      Rename a container
  restart     Restart one or more containers
  rm          Remove one or more containers
  rmi         Remove one or more images
  run         Run a command in a new container
  save        Save one or more images to a tar archive (streamed to STDOUT by default)
  search      Search the Docker Hub for images
  start       Start one or more stopped containers
  stats       Display a live stream of container(s) resource usage statistics
  stop        Stop one or more running containers
  tag         Create a tag TARGET_IMAGE that refers to SOURCE_IMAGE
  top         Display the running processes of a container
  unpause     Unpause all processes within one or more containers
  update      Update configuration of one or more containers
  version     Show the Docker version information
  wait        Block until one or more containers stop, then print their exit codes

Run 'docker COMMAND --help' for more information on a command.

To get more help with docker, check out our guides at https://docs.docker.com/go/guides/
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